Giroud, 36, has now scored 52 international goals in 116 appearances for France.
The record was previously held by Thierry Henry, who scored 51 goals in 123 games.
Antoine Griezmann, another current France player, has 42 goals in 108 games. Michel Platini managed 41 in 72, while Karim Benzema — who has missed the 2022 World Cup with a thigh injury — has 37 in 97.
Giroud’s 23-year-old team-mate Kylian Mbappe already has 31 goals in 61 appearances.
Giroud also possesses a better goals-per-game average than Henry and Griezmann.
The AC Milan striker’s 52 goals in 116 games means he possesses an average of 0.46, which is higher than Henry’s 0.41 and Griezmann’s 0.39, although it is slightly below Mbappe’s 0.48.
Giroud opened the scoring against Poland when he received the ball from Mbappe and hit a bouncing shot beyond Poland goalkeeper Wojciech Szczesny.
Giroud moved to AC Milan from Chelsea and is also Arsenal’s eighteenth-highest all-time goalscorer.